water, from a lantern placed at the height of 28 feet. On coasts where there is much diurnal inequality m the tides, the amount of rise and fall can not be depended upon and additional caution is necessary. The principal exports are foodstuffs, grain and flour, oils, minerals, and metalware, and imports, foodstuffs, grain and flour, salt, oil, metalware, minerals. The southern and eastern sides of the shoal are steep-to, rendering it dangerous on those sides. In employing the horizontal danger angle, however, caution is necessary, as should the chart be inaccurate,. The deptlis in the fiord from Gross Borreshoft as far as the east end of Langballig Bank, are from 11 to 13 fathoms, and from that to Holnis from 7 to 10 fathoms; in the narrowest part.
Vessels generally enter northward of Fogel- holm. Gyldenloves Flat, two shoals lying 3 miles eastward of Hol- leender Ground, has a least depth of 17 feet, over coarse sand and broken pebbles, on the southeastern patch, surrounded by depths of 5 fathoms. The positions of several mooring buoys in Strander Bight will be seen on the chart; a number of small buoys moored northeast by east of the pier are for securing targets. The Stockholm station is central, but those of other lines are some- what farther away. A siren gives four blasts, each of IJ seconds' dura- tion every minute. From a white building on Honohufvud a group occult- ing light, showing white, red, and green sectors, is exhibited, at an elevation of 63 feet above the level of the sea; in clear weather the white light. R)n the south side of the fiord, near Christiansminde, two leading lights are 450 yards apart and in line, bearing 238 they are seen over an arc of 10 on either side of this line. Skipper Ground and Letten form the south side of Ulvsund as far as Taro. From Borre So, a small inlet extending about 1 miles to the southward to Borre, the coast eastward to Hellehavn Nakke rises, is wooded, and has bluffs on its seaward side ; the shore l)ank only extends about i mile off. Lyo Trille, a sandy tongue of shoal extending in an easterly direction from the north point of Lyo, is steep-to, breaking down abruptly to 10 fathoms.
From close eastward of Taarbsek the fixed red and occulting lights on Provesteen, in line bearing 187, will lead in not less than 3f fathoms water, to the eastward of Middelpult, but as it also leads close. Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. The lighthouse has a flagstaff and four white buildings near. The lightvessel signals at Helsingborg are made by a similar means to those at Kullen, the signal station being at the same place where the ice signals are made. Several high, steep chSs occur on this coast, Alehoj, the principal, being yellow, 46 feet hih, and close to the sea north- west of Korsor Wood. Kolby Mill, a little inside the northeast end of Brattingsborg wood, bearing 307, leads northeast of Falske Bolsax, and between it and the 3J-fathoms patch; while the same mill, over the center of Brattingsborg wood, 328, leads midway between Bolsax and Falske Bolsax.
There is a depth of 3f fathoms in the middle of Sildekule, in a very narrow space. Tack (of a sail). Two leading lights are exhibited from square white structures at the head of Ebeltoft Bay; they are 630 yards apart, nd in line bearing 357. Square, right top corner Ice In Kattegat, East Channel. Sehwarzer Ground, extending in two prongs, northeastward and east-southeast of Dahmeshoved, for about 1 mile, within the depth of german coast alsen TO cape arkona. Although from a historical point of view Sweden is divided into 25 Provinces, from that of an administrative one it consists of 25 districts or lans, of which only 4 border the west coast, viz, from north to south, (loteborg.
(c) Lim fiord, Smaalands Farvandet, and the fairway, southward of Fyen, are each considered as two closed fiords, the closing or meet- ing points, respectively, being Logstor, Masnedo, and Svendborg- Marstal. 617 dunes and pine forests. 399 On Helleholm, a square white tower, 37 feet in height, with a gray lantern, exhibits, at an elevation of 39 feet above high water, a fixed light, with white, red, and green sectors, and the white. A black and white spar buoy, with ball, situated 1,200 yards north- eastward of the above, marks the southeast extreme of Lille Ground. Ice with a circular motion, caused by conflicting ciiri'ents. Landing and shooting practice may not be carried out, nor may an armed force be landed except by special permission. It is the residence of the Landshofding of the Ljin and of a United States consul, and has a population of 173,875 (1912).
Jorgen Church, has a depth of 5 feet and constitutes the principal obstruc- tion in this channel, which from the entrance of Dodmanden has depths of from 6 to 9 fathoms, but within that shoal the passage. The old town, on the northern side, separated from the new town by a moat, was intersected by canals built by the Dutch, but the THE kattegat swedish shore. From Halkerhoft the coast trends in a west- southwest direction for about 2 miles, and then recedes about 1 miles in a northerly direction, forming a bight of that width, for 4 miles, to Suderballighoft, its southwest point. It has depths of from 1 foot to 6 feet. The Imperial Dockyard, immediately to the south- ward of the basin above mentioned, has an equipment and construc- tion basin, and a torpedo-boat harbor; the dimensions of the docks are as given in the following table : Name oi dock. The northern part of the east coast of Amager forms the western side of Konge Deep, the island gen- erally being flat, well built over, and without trees; from its northern end the east coast trends. 288 fyen AND ZEAljvnd nobth coasts. The population was 83,474 in 1910. The town of Liibeck, situated on the right bank of the Trave, at about 11 miles from its mouth, has a population of 113,000. A a as a in cUn, pan, etc.
Immediately after passing Holnis Hook, Rinkenis White Tower. There is a railway station at Langebak, dis- tant 2 miles, and a telephone at Petersvaerft. On the South Mole head a white iron tower, exhibits, at an elevation of 27 feet above high water, a fixed red light, which, in clear weather, should be visible from a distance of 6 miles. There is one tug, which during winter is used also as an ice breaker. The northwest beacon, named Kreienboom, about 1 mile in that direction from Kirchdorf, is iron, 35 feet in height, and has a five- sided top mark.
Forest, fen, or heather bogs occur chiefly in Jutland, and are of considerable importance on account of the peat. About 11,000 tons of coal are kept in stock by private firms, and 30,000 tons by the Government, and about 060,000 tons are imported annually. From about 1 mile northeast of the Skaw lightvessel the course is 132 for 46 miles, passing about 4 miles northeastward of LsDso Trindel lightvessel, to about 2 miles southwestward of Nid- ingen, with the lighthouses or lights in line. Timmendorf Lighthouse, on the west point of the island. Also along the west coast of Jutland from the Skaw to Horn Reefs and Graa Deep Bar. Revsnaes Puller, the outer danger, which has 1 fathom water over it, and is situ- ated 1 mile west-northwest of Revsnses, is marked on its western side by a white buoy, with "Revsnaes" on it; it is fitted with.
Shoal water extends from both ends of the island; that from the northwest point, known as Nordvest Reef, being rocks, covered and uncovered, and extending i mile. Besser Church, in line with Mejlesholm Beacon, bearing 193 leads westward, or the same church open east of Kyholm, 199, leads eastward of Langballe Ground. Aalborg, which is the largest harbor in the north of Jutland, has three basins, Ostre Havn, the eastern, Teglgaardshavn, the central, and Nyhavn, the western, Ostre Havn, the largest of these, is about 900 feet in length. A red spar buoy, surmounted by a down-turned broom, is moored about.2 miles westward of Maklappen and close to the western edge of Falsterbo Reef. The northern cable is marked on each coast by two white beacons, each with a white diamond-shaped topmark, which in line point out the direction of the cable. In the eastern inner harbor are wooden (Dalben) beacons, and from the southward of these Sseby Church bears 185 and Flade Church 253. A conical red buoy, surmounted by two upturned brooms, is moored, in a depth of 6 fathoms, on the east side of Fljekojet. Varberg, a small artificial harbor between two stone piers of which the western is the longer, has a north-northwest direction, its entrance being fronted by Gettero ; oflF the eastern pier, and at about the same distance.
A channel passes on either side of the bank off the entrance and leads to a basin, with a depth of 2 fathoms, which affords well-sheltered anchorage to small craft. A red pennant at top of signal mast indicates " Entrance free." Steam dredger signals German. Hanse Bight, about 1 miles in width, is situated on the eastern side of Gryde Channel, its western side being formed by Gryderne and Kattero Beef; the coast is low, with some low green cliffs, the latter especially about Nab, the southeast point. Vessels pass the bridge in order of approach, but those coming with the stream take precedence of those going against. Two fixed white leading lights are exhibited at elevations of 42 and 13 feet above high water, from white beacons 16 and 30 feet in height, respectively, surmounted by disks; they are situated on Jomfruhoj, eastward of Dyrehave. Sjollen the eastern of these dangers, is nearly 1 miles in length in an east-northeast and opposite direction and mile in greatest breadth, and in most places composed of stones. About 3 miles northward of Torup Church, is Torup Flat, a small patch, which has from 2J to 3 fathoms, and foul ground between it and the shore ; a patch of 2f fathoms lies 1 mile northward of Kik- havn Village. The rear light, shown from a white house 16 feet in height, is fixed green and exhibited at an elevation of 33 feet above high water: it is visible 8 miles.
From the eastward, Skare Odde in line with Borup Sand, bearing 241, leads to the northward of Gals Cliff and when Stenderup Hook is just open of Sten Head, the west point of Faeno, 161, steer 191, passing westward. The above mark may be kept astern, steering 185, till abreast of Humlebaek, when the coarse should be more to the eastward, but not to pass the northwest point of Hven under the distance of i mile. To pass between Alsen Stein and Steen Ron, on the northeast, and the coast of Alsen on the southwest side, keep in the sector of fixed white light from Taksensand, between 134 and 142, until in the fixed white. A stranger should take a pilot. Vessels seen standing into danger are warned by signal (Inter- national Code), also by a double report and ringing of the bell. Dangers.; From Hasenore to Gaasehage, and nearly to Alhage, also on the west side from Sletterhage to midway of the east side of Helgenaes, the 3-fathom contour line is about mile offshore, but southward of Hasenore and across the. Aarhus Harbor, at the mouth of a rivulet, consists of a North Harbor, Gamle Harbor, and South Harbor. When ves- sels are not in the rays of the searchlight it is impossible to know which searchlight is causing the inconvenience. The chart on largest scale should always be used on accoimt of its greater detail and the greater accuracy with which positions may be plotted.
The eastern edge of the shoal that sur- rounds Northwest Reef from its extreme, has a southeast direction to the north coast of the island, 3 miles eastward of the northwest point. Pilots can be obtained at Svendborg, and pilot vessels to places in both Belts also. The depths in the bay are from 6 to 7 fathoms, over clay and ooze. About 2,000 tons of coal are kept in stock, and the coal wharf has depths of from 15 to 25 feet alongside. South shore Trselle Naes is a tongue of land the point of which is named Kasserodde; it is the southern entrance point to Vejle Fiord. Polyphem with a depth of 3 J fathoms, and situated IJ miles west by south of Romso Tue, is about 200 3'ards in extent within the 5-fathom contour line.
Close southward of the line of the leading light struc- tures, a spar buoy, striped red and white, is moored in 13 feet, and surmounted by a ball. Kakkeb de, or Kaggeb de, northwestward of Malo, is described below. Small repairs might be executed, and there is a crane at Old Harbor which will lift 6 tons. The northeast extreme of Stone Reef is the outermost danger on the west side of the bay, forming the road, and from its extreme, 1 mile northeast of Brodten shore, the shore bank, on that side, gradually. The coast southward of Limhamn will be found described below, but within a distance of 2 miles southwest of Limhamn are the following dangers, extending about 1 miles off- shore. Alro Church is not easily made out, but the trees surrounding it will point out its position. 1 The distinction between "rise" and "range " of the tide should be understood. Between Wustrow Peninsula and the coast is Salt Haff, a shallow inlet, with depths of from 1 J to 2 fathoms in its southern part, which 604 german coast alsen TO cape abkoka. Kalleboer Lightvessel, which is small, and carries a red ball at the mainmast head, is moored in a depth of 2 fathoms on the eastern side of the entrance to Sorte Channel, and exhibits, at elevations. Ommel Head is situated IJ miles southeastward of the east end of the peninsula, of which Ure Head is the west extremity, and between these points the coast forms a bay which extends 2 miles southeastward, wdth a breadth of about 1 J miles.
Two fixed red leading lights for Kron Chan- nel are exhibited near the extreme of the eastern mole of South Frihavijs Basin and are 142 yards apart, and in line bearing 233. The portion of the west coast considered in this work may be divided geologically into two parts, as from Marstrand, as far south as Engelholm, the whole, extending inland for half the breadth of the peninsula, is composed. The approach is along the eastern shore in a channel, with depths of from 6 to 8 fathoms, and the depths in the entrance and in the fiord are from 3 J to 4 fathoms. AVlien bridge is open a green light will be shown both toward the outer harbor and toward the harbor basin, and the semaphore arm will be lowered. About 600 yards westward of the western edge of Bred Ground are two patches with 2 fathoms water over them, the southern named Virago Ground, and the northern Eamsan. The important fact should be remembered that the depths at half tide are practically the same for all tides, whether neaps or springs. Pilots may l)e obtained, and take vessels to Jutland ports in the immediate neighborhood.
The signals are as follows:. From a fog-signal house northwestward of the high lighthouse, and 80 feet above sea level, a compressed-air siren gives 2 blasts every minute. Horizontally to the left, wind from the west. The whole of this last stretch is foul, the shore bank, known as Schabemack and Warder Hook, extending for 1,400 yards; the town of Heiligenhafen can only be seen between the extremes of Stein ( Warder and Gras Warder, when abreast. Eolby EaaSy situated nearly 4 miles southward of the south point of Samso Bay, is formed by a south breakwater which, with changes, has a general northwest direction, for 1,080 feet, with a north break- water, about 400 feet. Havnelev Church northwestward, Hojstrup mansion house south- westward, and Faxe Church, which stands on high ground 8 miles westward, of Rodvig, the houses at Faxehavn, with Hylleholt Church, Strandegaard, at the northeast corner of Prsesto Fiord, and Prsesto Church. About 100 tons of liquid fuel are kept in stock. The light is shown from 6th July to 6th June. In addition to the above small harbors there are cement- work piers at Hadsund and Kongsdal and the Cimbria and Dania piers eastward of Mariager ; the depths at these piers are 17 feet. Ap- pendix.) Harbor regulations.
Thule enroute 2 escort skanör med falsterbo - Thule EnRouteA red can buoy, surmounted by a staff, is moored on its southern edge. In approaching the land or dangerous banks, regard must always be had to the scale of the chart used. There is no special icebreaker at this port, but three other vessels are available and are used when necessary. There is a telephone station at Kladesholm. Laeso Channel entered from the northward between the north extreme of Dvale Ground and the northwest end of Northwest Reef, a width of 4 miles, and reduced in breadth to 3 miles between the lightvessel marking the southeast side of Dvale. 612 german coast alsen TO cape abkona, Pilots. A mill stands on the south side of Skanor town, and near the north end of the island off the town is a beacon 46 feet high, square, and with a white square board as a top mark. In navigating coasts where the tidal range is considerable, especial caution is necessary. The shoal on the north side is marked on its south side by a white spar buoy, surmounted by a straw wisp ; it is in 2 J fathoms. I.) Kladesholm Harbor, between the islands off the southwestern side of Tjorn on the east side of Kladesholm and Koholm on the west, is an excellent place of refuge, particularly for vessels meet- ing a westerly gale off.
Thule 17 Blk, enRoute: Thule enroute 2 escort skanör med falsterboGkdes are mostly caused by cyclonic systems of pressure, and the changes of wind to an observer depend upon his position with regard to the center of the depression and the direction in which it is traveling; though the. A shoal, with a depth of 3 J fathoms, lies 1 mile offshore, with Haken Lighthouse (Hven) bearing 260, distant 1 miles. Langelands Belt, that portion of the Great Belt lying eastward of Langeland, is about 30 miles in length, from southward of Ven- geance Shoal to Kjelsnor, and 6 miles in least width between Laaland massagepiger slagelse suree thai massage and Langeland. Vessels can be supplied with electric light from the harbor, the charge made for the same being in proportion to the length of cable required and the number of lights used. Gilbjerg Head is a steep, bare cliff, 109 feet high, with a con- spicuous house eastward. Conspicuous landmarks on the west side are Biilk and Friedrich- soit Lighthouses; Danischenhagen Qiurch, Sprenge, and Kaltenhof Mills, the latter having five wings, Friedrichsort Barracks, Dankes Church at Holtenau, the water tower at Kevensberg, and Nicolaus and the Garrison Church towers at Kiel. Galtabiickskar lies off a small bay, 3 miles southward of Bodskar, in which is Galtaback village, and from this to Morups Tange the coast is fronted by shoal water and rocks, extending from a quarter to half a mile. Foreign vessels of war are permitted to navigate or anchor in Danish waters with- out previous notice except in inner waters, Copenhagen Roadsted, and closed waters. Words AND phrases which MAY BE found OF USE IN questioning pilots. South Passage, between Dronning Maries Puller and Vresen, is narrow, with an irregular bottom, but by keeping a gap in Juelsberg Wood in line with Knuds Head Lighthouse, bearing about 318, not less than 4f fathoms will be obtained. If, however, vessels wish to proceed past Svinbidan Lightvessel, pilots must be changed at Helsingor. About 14,000 tons of coal are kept in stock, and nearly 200,000 tons imported annually; coaling is carried on br j german coast alsbn TO cape abkona. The ice signals at Falsterbo Point are made by the means of black balls and a cone, hoisted on a signal mast Southwestward of the lighthouse, the yard having a north and south direction ; the numbers. From Lodver Odde, the southern entrance point to Kolding Fiord, the coat of Jutland trends in a southeast direction for 3 miles to Stenderup Hook, and is moderately low, the greater part being wooded. Skrifvareklippan, an island about mile in length, in a north- east and opposite direction, is nearly 600 yards south of Gettero and mile westward of the harbor. The ice does not affect the depths in the ficrd in any way. The southern channel to Rudk- jobing passes close along the coast of Langeland, being entered about 13 miles northward of the entrance to Lindelse Nor; it has a depth of 11 feet. On the west side the land rises to Lykkehoj 159 feet, and to Home Church and northward and eastward of the fiord it is also high and wooded in places. The gen- eral direction of the north shore of the fiord from Dalsgaard to Kupfermiihlen Bight, a distance of ( J miles, is west-southwest, but for 3 miles between Brennstoft Huk and Kuhhaken it is broken by a bight. The southernmost hummock of Kulsbjerg, in line with Valdemars Tower, bearing 8T, leads northward of Dyrefod Flat in a depth of 2 J fathoms. The south coast of Knudshoved Peninsula trends in a southeast direction for about 11 miles to Masnedo, an island lying little more than 200 yards off the coast, and connected to it by a railway bridge ; 422 smaalands faevandet. Storm signals are shown from two different positions at Malmo, one mast being at the Inner Harbor; storm warnings are also posted. Northwest gales raise the water 4 feet, and those from south-south- west lower it 3 feet. A channel in which there is 4f fathoms water separates it from the shore bank. J chapter V; part OF THE sound, including landskrona, copenhagen, iiolliender deep, AND drogden channel. 637 Fehmarn Belt, and as that depth is not far from Puttgarden Reef deep-draft vessels shsould keep outside 12 fathoms when in that locality. From a white tower, 38 feet in height, with a red dwelling, situated on the east point of Hven, a white light with fixed and occulting sectoi's is exhibited, at an elevation of 29 feet above sea level, visible 10 miles.
With northwest winds the principal current was to the south- east, then a northeast and southwest set in order of occurrence, the rates attained being 2J, 2, and knots, respectively. In the north harbor there is a depth of 18 feet alongside the quays on the west and south sides, and 12 feet alongside the quay in the south basin. Off B dstad, on the southern side of the bay, vessels may anchor in 5 to 6 fathoms, sand and clay bottom, with the church bearing 216, about 1 mile off the shore, but it is open to winds between west-northwest and north. A siren gives one blast of 15 seconds' duration every 45 seconds. The entrance, 2 miles in width, except for a blind channel about 2 miles in length on the east side, is filled with shoal water, with a dredged channel through the west side and a shallow channel on the east.
Skindssekken is a bight in the shore bank northward of Nordmans Hook. FaenO; about IJ miles in length, in v north-northwest and opposite direction, and nearly 1 mile in greatest width at its southern end, lies in the southern part of Snevringen, dividing it into two chan- nels, the principal. On all parts of the flat surrounding Hjelm there is anchorage, but the best is on the northwestern side. Fresh provisions and water may be obtained. To unmoor froin pier or buoy.
Having passed the buoy, steer along Agerso southwest coast, open- ing the mill somewhat of the lighthouse, and when the lamp post and 406 THE great belt. The lightvessel will signal the condition of the ice in the Danish channels, and in the German harbors in the Baltic if requested to do so by passing vessels. With southwest winds the main set was to the southeast, the re- mainder being to the northeast and the velocities 2J and IJ knots, 42 general remarks. Although the shoals in the bay are dangerous, they may generally 1)8 approached by the lead, and for marks, the towers at Wismar, and the high Marien Church, can be seen from a considerable distance. There is a post and a telegraph office in the town. Coming from the northward, Korsor water tower in line with the middle of the castle buildings, bearing about 93, leads in a depth of 3 fathoms, southward of Halskov Reef and Krage- puller, and close southward of Lygtepulle, after. Repairs to wooden vessels can be effected. Vessels of about 7J feet draft can use the western channel.
Smaagrundene, the edge of the bank 1 miles westward of the north end of Saltholm, is steep-to, and a patch of 1 fathoms lies on the edge of the 3-fathom contour line. Large vessels can anchor close inside the western entrance in depths of from 4 to 6 fathoms, with Diernisse Church in line with the tileworks, southeast of Faaborg, bearing about. The northwest side of the IJ-fathom patch is marked by a red spar buoy surmounted by an upturned broom ; it is in 2 fathoms. Grain and beet sugar are exported and coal imported. The latUr show an alternating red and white light by night. A time signal, for rating chronometers, is given daily at the telegraph oflSce. On the western point of Stora Var- holm a lighthouse, 11 feet in height, exhibits at an elevation of 49 feet above sea level, an unwatched group occulting light, with white, red, and green sectors; in clear weather. Apenrade, Flensburg, Kiel, Liibeck, Neustadt, Rostock, Wamemiinde, and Wismar. 128 northward of L ngnas udde, on about the same bearing, leads south- ward of Tylogrund.